The Second Coming of Jesus Christ

AN EXEGESIS OF REVELATION 19:11-16

James Buddy Smith
October 31, 2012
            Revelation 19:11-16 describes the second coming of Jesus Christ, an event which demonstrates His faithfulness to both His character and His people. This passage presents a composite portrait of Christ by stressing His transcendent nature as Judge, Warrior, and King, while not neglecting His intimate role as Redeemer.

OUTLINE

A. The Triumphant Entry of the Faithful and True Warrior-Judge (v. 11)

B. The Transcendent Nature of the Rider (v. 12)

C. The Intimate Nature of the Rider (v. 13-14)

D. The Divine King Conquers by the Power of His Word (v. 15-16)

HISTORICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Authorship

            The book of Revelation itself indicates that its author was named John (Rev. 1:1, 4, 9; 22:8). According to Irenaeus, an acquaintance of Polycarp who both knew John the apostle and was bishop of Smyrna (a city addressed in Rev. 2:8-11), the John referred to here is John the son of Zebedee, one of Jesus’ twelve disciples.[1] Other early Christian writers affirm this claim: Justin Martyr, Melito of Sardis, Tertullian, Origen, Hippolytus, and the author of the Muratorian Canon.[2] Dr. John MacArthur states that “early tradition unanimously identified him [i.e. the author] as John the apostle, author of the Fourth Gospel and three epistles.”[3] Dr. Earl Palmer agrees with MacArthur by saying that “the ancient church fathers were almost universally of the opinion that the beloved disciple John was the writer of this book [i.e. Revelation].”[4] Palmer goes on to say,

…the recent experience of New Testament scholarship has taught us to weigh heavily the witness of the ancient church, and to be cautious about developing elaborate authorship hypotheses for the New Testament books that counter the early church traditional understanding.[5]

 Therefore, in light of all this patristic attestation, it seems “that the strongest evidence of all sources and from within the document points to John the son of Zebedee as the author of the book.”[6]

Date and Audience

            As Dr. Paige Patterson notes, though there are a handful of dates proposed for the writing of Revelation, “Since the patristic era only two serious possibilities have been perpetuated in the race for an acceptable date of writing.”[7] The first date is AD 64-68 during the Neronian persecution and the second date is c. AD 95 in the reign of Emperor Domitian, who also persecuted Christians. Patterson states that the latter view is “widely accepted” and G.K. Beale claims that the later date is “the consensus among twentieth-century scholars.”[8] Besides the stance of modern scholarship, “the earliest authorities are practically unanimous in assigning the Apocalypse to the last years of Domitian.”[9] These authorities are Mileto of Sardis, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Victorinus, Jerome, and Eusebius.[10] In conclusion, it appears that it is “the persecution of the believers during the reign of Domitian” that “is reflected in the message of Revelation (1:9; 2:10, 13; 6:9).”[11] Therefore, the specific audience addressed would be the persecuted Christians of the seven Asian churches (Rev. 1-3), who were living at the time when Domitian was viciously striking out against the church because of its refusal to deem him “Lord and God.”[12]

LITERARY CONSIDERATIONS

Genre and Interpretation

            Based on the fact that Revelation is specifically addressed “to the seven churches that are in Asia”[13] (Rev. 1:4), it can be stated with confidence that in one sense “the genre of Revelation is epistolary.”[14] Still, one shouldn’t disregard the fact that “within the opening three sentences of Revelation, two words are used by the author himself to describe the book he is writing, and both are essential clues to its meaning.” [15] These two words are apokalupsis (“apocalypse” or “revelation”) and “prophecy.” Concerning the word “apocalypse,” though Revelation is clearly distinct in many ways from other examples of apocalyptic literature,[16] it does indeed contain material characteristic of that genre. This can be seen by reading the contents of the book in light of the following definition of apocalyptic literature:

“Apocalypse” is a genre of revelatory literature with a narrative framework, in which a revelation is mediated by an otherworldly being to a human recipient, disclosing a transcendent reality which is both temporal, insofar as it envisages eschatological salvation, and spatial insofar as it involves another, supernatural world.[17]

Concerning the word “prophecy,” because the book of Revelation itself explicitly claims to be “prophecy” (1:3; 22:18-19) and to relay information about the future (1:19), it should also be seen as “literature of the prophetic genre.”[18] In conclusion, Revelation should be viewed “as a prophetic circular letter which not infrequently makes use of apocalyptic imagery and device”[19] 

            The two words “apocalypse” and “prophecy” not only relate to the question of Revelation’s genre, but also to the question of how the book should be interpreted. The fact that Revelation resembles apocalyptic writings, which “look to the end times and a glorious triumph for righteousness,” actually provides evidence for a futurist reading of Revelation.[20] Because futurism “sees the Book of Revelation as primarily prophetic,”[21] “particularly from chapter 4 on,”[22] it also “does justice to Revelation’s claim to be prophecy.”[23] Regarding the antiquity of the futurist view, Dr. Tim LaHaye notes that it “was the interpretation of the early church during its most evangelistic history, from the apostles until the fourth century.”[24] Lawrence Richards gives the reason for this: the church took Old Testament and New Testament prophetic pictures “in their literal sense.”[25] LaHaye exhorts the reader of Revelation to follow in the early church’s footsteps by wisely advising that one should “accept the book as literal unless the facts are obviously to the contrary.”[26] In short, as MacArthur contends, the futurist perspective is unique in that it is a natural product of the grammatical-historical method.[27]

Context

            Revelation 19 opens with a rejoicing in heaven (1-5). This takes place after the fall of Babylon, which is described in the preceding chapter. Verses 1-5 are followed by a passage dealing with the marriage/marriage supper (v. 7, 9) of the Lamb (i.e. Christ). The title “Lamb” is especially fitting in this context because the Bride of Christ, which is made up of the saints, is here presented to the Bridegroom, who was slain for her and also “granted her to clothe herself with fine linen, bright and pure” (v. 8; Eph. 5:25-27). Dr. Warren Wiersbe notes,

It is interesting that this is the marriage supper of the Lamb, and not “the King” or “the Lord.” The one title that Christ wants emphasized is “the Lamb;” for it speaks of His love for the Church and the price that He paid to purchase the Church.[28]

Patterson affirms this and even goes as far as to say that “Jesus the Lamb…is the theme of Revelation.”[29] This emphasis of Jesus as Lamb goes to heighten the contrast seen in 19:11-16 where Christ is portrayed in a ferocious, lion-like manner. Patterson mentions the uniqueness of this transition when he says, “he [i.e. the bridegroom] does not appear as the verses immediately before might have anticipated; but rather he appears in his return to bring judgment.”[30] Revelation 19:11-16 moves away from the jubilant presentation of the Bride to the ominous presentation of the Bridegroom. These verses remind the reader, among other things, of the title ascribed to Jesus in Rev. 5:5: “the Lion of the tribe of Judah.” This focus shift from Bride to Bridegroom begins in verse 10 when an angel tells John to not worship him, but God. He adds that “the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.” This statement reminds the reader that “from the first prophetic utterance of God (Gen. 3:15) to the last prediction of the Revelation, the heart of prophecy has been directed to the person of Christ.”[31] In short, Revelation 19:11-16 is the culmination of not only its immediate context, but the entire book of Revelation and the whole of Scripture.

EXEGESIS

The Triumphant Entry of the Faithful and True Warrior-Judge (v. 11)

            In the beginning of verse 11 John describes the opening up of heaven. This also happened earlier in Revelation 4:1. In this latter instance John is taken up into heaven to learn of “what must take place after this.” Some commentators see Revelation 4 as referring to the rapture of the church, which will precede the Great Tribulation described in the remainder of Revelation. Wiersbe makes a distinction of “the door into heaven, 4:1” and “the door out from heaven, 19:11.”[32] LaHaye affirms this distinction and believes that Scripture’s differing prophetic accounts of Christ’s return teach “two installments of our Lord’s second coming,” the first being the Rapture of Revelation 4 and the second being the Glorious Appearing of Revelation 19. [33] MacArthur also notes that the nature of the event in Revelation 19:11-16 “shows how it differs from the Rapture.” [34] LaHaye argues, along with Dr. J. Vernon McGee,[35] that “the absence of any mention of the Church in the rest of Revelation indicates that it is not on the earth during the Tribulation.”[36] In short, as Wiersbe writes, “in 4:1 heaven opens to let the Church in; but here, heaven opens to let Christ and His armies ride forth in victory.”[37]

            Two further contrasts should be mentioned. Firstly, the rider of verse 11 contrasts with the rider of 6:2. That rider was the Antichrist, while this rider “can be none other than the Lord Jesus Christ.”[38] While “the coming of the lawless one is by the activity of Satan” (2 Thess. 2:9), “the father of lies” (John 8:44), the rider of verse 11 is “Faithful and True.” The second contrast concerns the differences between the first coming of Jesus and His second coming. Wiersbe summarizes these differences,

He [i.e. Jesus] is no longer on a humble donkey, but on a fiery white charger. His eyes are not filled with tears as when He beheld Jerusalem; nor is He wearing a mocking crown of thorns. Instead of being stripped by His enemies, He wears a garment dipped in blood, signifying judgment and victory. When on earth, He was abandoned by His followers; but here the armies of heaven follow Him in conquest. His mouth does not speak “words of grace” (Lk. 4:22), but rather the Word of victory and justice…He comes, not to bear the wrath of the cross, but to tread the winepress of God’s wrath…[39]

Christ’s white horse symbolizes that He is already victorious in the cross (Col. 2:15), for Roman generals rode a white horse through Rome after their military triumph.[40] The last part of the verse indicates that at His return Jesus will act as Judge and Warrior. He fulfills both of these roles with righteousness in faithfulness to His people (2 Pet. 3:8-10) and Hischaracter (2 Tim. 2:13).

The Transcendent Nature of the Rider (v. 12)

            Verse 12 stresses the transcendence of Jesus. First off, the verse begins with the detail that Jesus’ eyes will be like “a flame of fire” when He returns. This relates to the previous verse where it says Jesus will judge and make war “in righteousness.” LaHaye states that the eschatological war that Christ will wage “will be the first clearly righteous war in the history of humankind.”[41] This is because “nothing escapes His [i.e. Christ] penetrating vision, so that His judgments are always just and accurate.”[42] While Patterson agrees that Christ’s eyes suggest judgment, he adds that they also convey the idea of “penetrating knowledge.”[43] In short, the description of Jesus’ eyes acts as a symbol of His omniscience. A second description of Christ that is “designed to heighten the sense of awesomeness, justice, and irresistible power and authority”[44] is the reference to Jesus’ crowns or diadems. The word in the Greek text is diadema. This word should be distinguished from stephanos, another word for “crown.” The most predominant use of the latter “was that of a victor’s crown,”[45] while the former refers to a “the kingly ornament for the head.”[46] The enemies of the Lord are also described in Revelation as adorning themselves with diadema (Rev. 12:3; 13:1). Yet, in contrast to these pretenders, in Revelation 19:12 we see the only rightful wearer of diadema: Christ, the supreme Sovereign. It may seem unusual to the modern reader that Christ would be wearing more than one crown, but this confusion is done away with once one understands that diadema refers “to the narrow blue band of ribbon marked with white which the Persian kings used to bind on a turban or tiara.”[47] In fact, “sometimes more than one diadema was worn at the same time.”[48] The last detail mentioned in verse 12 is that Christ “has a name written that no one knows but himself.” Patterson notes that this “signals the transcendent quality of this rider.”[49] The end of verse 12 basically reminds the reader that though God has chosen to reveal some of His nature to humanity, this revelation “does not exhaust his essence.”[50] In conclusion, verse 12 as a whole describes the incomparable attributes of the transcendent Christ.

The Intimate Nature of the Rider (v. 13-14)

            The beginning of verse 13 describes Jesus as being “clothed in a robe dipped in blood.” As Patterson writes, this detail “is subject to different interpretations.”[51] Matthew Henry summarizes the main views in saying that the vesture is “either his [i.e. Christ’s] own blood…or the blood of his enemies, over whom he has always prevailed.”[52] Patterson holds that the garment most likely “represents the blood of his [i.e. Christ’s] enemies since the circumstance here involves judgment.” [53] Dr. John Walvoord, on the other hand, argues that the blood signifies that Christ “comes on the basis of His sacrifice for sin and His victory over death.”[54] While there is warrant in the context for either understanding, a closer look at verses 13 and 14 yields evidence that the blood in question here is intended to evoke sacrificial imagery. For instance, the title applied to Jesus, “The Word of God,” connotes Christ’s incarnation, when “the Word became flesh and dwelt among us” (John 1:14) to act as “the Lamb of God” in taking away “the sin of the world” (John 1:29). After the mentioning of this title, “the armies of heaven” are described in verse 14. Now though some contend that the armies “refer to the angels of heaven who are under God’s command (cf. Mark 8:38; 2 Thess. 1:7),”[55] it is more likely that the church is the focus here. Still, this does not mean that angels are excluded. In fact, Fruchtenbaum points out that the plural form “armies” means that Christ will return with at least two separate forces, one being angelic (Matt. 16:27).[56] Nevertheless, the phrase “white and pure” in verse 14 clearly parallels “bright and pure” in verse 8, where the phrase is used to describe “the saints.” MacArthur agrees that this contextual detail indicates that the armies “must include glorified saints already with the Lord in glory.”[57] In light of this, the bloody garments of Jesus make more sense: Jesus spilt His own blood so that His Bride could be “white and pure.” In other words, without the shedding of Christ’s blood there could be no purity for the church (Heb. 9:22). Therefore, verses 13 and 14 stress the intimate relationship Christ has with believers. The Bridegroom took on human form “so that he might present the church to himself in splendor, without spot or wrinkle or any such thing, that she might be holy and without blemish” (Eph. 5:27). Nevertheless, while the work of Christ’s first coming may be the focus of verses 13 and 14 this doesn’t mean that the blood on His apparel can’t also symbolize victory over His enemies. Does not Hebrews 2:14 say that Jesus took upon flesh and blood “that through death he might destroy the one who has power of death”? As MacArthur rightly notes, “Christ’s bloody garments symbolize the great battles He has already fought against sin, Satan, and death and been stained with the blood of His enemies.”[58] Therefore, the blood is not that of the wicked hosts at Armageddon, for Christ does not slay them until verse 21. Instead, the blood reminds the reader of the victory that Christ secured through His death on the cross. It is because of this victory that the saints can ride upon white horses signifying triumph, even when Jesus has yet to strike down His foes on the field. In conclusion, verses 13 and 14 balance the dreadful portrayal of the Lord in Revelation 19 by implicitly conveying in strong imagery what He has done for humans out of His incomprehensible love for them.

The Divine King Conquers by the Power of His Word (v. 15-16)

            Verse 15 begins by describing a sword coming out of Jesus’ mouth “with which to strike down the nations.” Hromphaia, the Greek word for “sword” here, “indicates a long and usually large sword known as a Thracian sword.”[59] The immense nature of this unique type of weapon was likely the reason John chose to use it here, for these verses highlight Christ’s power. The sword is probably a reference to “the word of God,” which is “the sword of the Spirit” and “sharper than any two-edged sword” (Eph. 6:15; Heb. 4:12). Confirmation of this is found in Isaiah 11:4, which states that the Messiah “shall strike the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips he shall kill the wicked.” So, it is by His word, that is, “the rod of his mouth,” that Christ will conquer His enemies and, thus, pave a way for His kingdom on the earth (Rev. 20:1-6). Moreover, it is by His word that the Lord will rule over His kingdom (v. 15b). The reference to “a rod of iron” also hearkens back to Psalm 2:9: “You shall break them with a rod of iron and dash them to pieces like a potter’s vessel.” The Psalms of Solomon and the Dead Sea Scrolls indicate that “sometime prior to the Christian period Psalm 2 was beginning to be used within Jewish nonconformist circles as a messianic psalm.”[60] Revelation 19:15 reminds the readers of the Father’s promise to His Son: “I will make the nations your heritage, and the ends of the earth your possession” (Psalm 2:8).

            The last part of verse 15 also contains Old Testament imagery. The picture of Christ treading a “winepress” points back to Isaiah 63:1-6. Here a gruesome vision of the Lord’s “day of vengeance” (v. 4) is presented, for the Messiah is described as having trampled His enemies like grapes and, thus, being soaked in their “lifeblood” or “juice” (v. 3, 6). This figurative use of the process of squishing grapes to get wine vividly conveys to the reader the utter futility of the human effort to rebel against the Creator. As LaHaye writes, “The word that called the world into being will call human leaders and the armies of all nations into control.”[61] Patterson similarly states, “Just as God’s word was powerful enough to create the cosmos initially, so it is all that is needed to strike down the nation who rise against him [i.e. Jesus].”[62] In summary, while the “Word” of verse 13 emphasizes the Lord’s humble incarnation to redeem mankind, the power of Jesus’ word in verse 15 stresses His sovereign subjugation of the world in the future.

            Verse 16 of Revelation provides another title of Jesus: “King of kings and Lord of lords.” This title naturally expresses the content of the previous verse, which, as demonstrated above, stresses Christ’s “absolute sovereignty over all human rulers.”[63] In regards to the phrase “on his robe and on his thigh,” this likely “pictures the King as having a banner that sweeps across and goes down on His thigh.”[64] As William Barclay observes, “it seems clear that the name is in fact visible to all, and, therefore, probably the likeliest solution is that that name was written on the skirt of the warrior Christ’s robe.”[65] If the name was actually tattooed on the Lord’s thigh, His robe would naturally cover it up and, thus, it would not be visible to all. Adam Clarke notes that images in the ancient world give numerous examples of inscriptions found on the thigh, sometimes on the actual thigh and other times on the garment covering the thigh.[66] In light of Barclay’s observation, the latter understanding seems to be the most plausible. Still, Barclay is right in saying that “to discover the picture behind the statement that the warrior Christ has the name King of kings and Lord of lords on His robe and His thigh” is a “most difficult task.”[67] Some other explanations proposed to accomplish this task are that the inscription is engraved on Christ’s sword hilt or embroidered on His girdle (i.e. belt/sash).[68]

APPLICATION

            Palmer writes that the book of Revelation “has probably been understood in the deepest sense by those who have suffered the most.”[69] This is “because the book is about the victory of the Word of God.”[70] The essence of this overarching message is captured by Revelation 19:11-16, for it depicts the victorious return of Christ, who “is not slow to fulfill his promise” (2 Pet. 3:9), but “Faithful and True” (Rev. 19:11). Isaiah 63:4 (KJV) calls the Lord’s return “the year of my redeemed.” This is because at the Second Advent, opposition to the Redeemer and redeemed will be squelched and during this time of peace God’s people will reign with Him (Rev. 20:5). As Revelation provided a message of hope for the persecuted Christians of Asia when it was originally written, it does the same for all Christians today. Believers, who often feel defeated amidst the pervasive evil surrounding them, have in Revelation a great blessing of encouragement (Rev. 1:3), for “the grand theme of Revelation is that of two warring powers, God and Satan, and of God’s ultimate victory.”[71] In addition to hope, believers also find exhortation in Revelation: “keep what is written…, for the time is near” (Rev. 1:3). Knowledge of the Lord’s impending return should spur the Christian on to constant devotion, for Jesus is coming at an unexpected hour (Matt. 24:36-50). Lastly, Revelation speaks to unbelievers, as well. Revelation has a very positive outlook for repentant souls, but not for rebellious ones. Those individuals who persist in their rejection of God can expect nothing from the future but their own destruction (1 Thess. 1:6-10). Revelation 19:11-16 reveals the end of history and it is left up to the reader to decide where one will stand when it unfolds. Hopefully this description of the end will bring the lost to salvation before it is too late. In the end, he who embraces the gospel has empowering eschatological hope, while the one who stubbornly shuns the gracious offer of Christ will consequently be judged by Him.  

WORKS CITED

Barclay, William. The Revelation of John, Volume 2 (Chapters 6 to 22). Philadelphia: The           Westminster Press, 1960.

Beale, G. K. The Book of Revelation: A Commentary on the Greek Text. Grand Rapids: Wm. B.   Publishing Co, 1999.

Clarke, Adam. The Adam Clarke Commentary,         http://studylight.org/com/acc/view.cgi?book=re&chapter=019. Accessed October 16,           2012.

Fruchtenbaum, Arnold G. “The Campaign of Armageddon and the Second Coming of Jesus the   Messiah.” CTJ 5:14 (March 2001): 8-28.

Henry, Matthew. Matthew Henry’s Commentary, Volume 6: Acts to Revelation. Peabody:             Hendrickson Publishers, 2009.

Hughes, Robert B. and J. Carl Laney. New Bible Companion. Wheaton: Tyndale House    Publishers, 1990.

LaHaye, Tim. Revelation Unveiled. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999.

Lockyer, Herbert. Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers,    1986.

Longman III, Tremper and David E. Garland., eds. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Luke-      Acts. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2007.

MacArthur, John. The MacArthur New Testament Commentary. Nashville: Thomas Nelson          Publishers, 2007.

______. “Visions of the Glorious Christ.” MJS 10:1 (Spring 99): 20-51.

McGee, J. Vernon. Revelation: Chapters 1-5. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1991.

Patterson, Paige, The New American Commentary, Volume 39: Revelation. Nashville: B & H       Publishing Group, 2012.

Richards, Lawrence. The Teacher’s Commentary. Wheaton: Victor Books, 1987.

Walvoord, John F. Every Prophecy of the Bible. Colorado Springs: David C. Cook, 1999.

Wiersbe, Warren. Expository Outline of the New Testament. Covington: Calvary Book Room,      1965.

Wuest, Kenneth. Bypaths in the Greek New Testament. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1968.


[1] Paige Patterson, The New American Commentary, Volume 39: Revelation (Nashville: B & H Publishing Group, 2012), 20.

[2] Ibid., 21.

[3] John MacArthur, The MacArthur New Testament Commentary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publications, 2007), 899.

[4] Earl Palmer, The Communicator’s Commentary, Volume 12: 1, 2, 3 John & Revelation (Dallas: Word Publishing, 1982), 103.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Palmer, The Communicator’s Commentary, Volume 12: 1, 2, 3 John & Revelation, 104.

[7] G. K. Beale, The Book of Revelation: A Commentary on the Greek Text (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1999), 4.

[8] Patterson, The New American Commentary, Volume 39: Revelation, 23.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Robert B. Hughes and J. Carl Laney, New Bible Companion (Wheaton: Tyndale House Publishers, 1990), 839.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Unless otherwise noted all Scripture quotations are taken from the English Standard Version.

[14] Patterson, The New American Commentary, Volume 39: Revelation, 25.

[15] Palmer, The Communicator’s Commentary, Volume 12: 1, 2, 3 John & Revelation, 99.

[16] Patterson, The New American Commentary, Volume 39: Revelation, 24-25.

[17] Ibid., 24.

[18] Ibid., 25.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Patterson, The New American Commentary, Volume 39: Revelation, 37.

[21] J. Vernon McGee, Revelation: Chapters 1-5 (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1991), xii.

[22] Tim LaHaye, Revelation Unveiled (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999), 19.

[23] MacArthur, The MacArthur New Testament Commentary, 901.

[24] LaHaye, Revelation Unveiled, 19.

[25] Lawrence O. Richards, The Teacher’s Commentary (Wheaton: Victor Books, 1987), 1067.

[26] LaHaye, Revelation Unveiled, 19.

[27] MacArthur, The MacArthur New Testament Commentary, 901.

[28] Warren Wiersbe, Expository Outlines of the New Testament (Covington: Calvary Book Room, 1965), 505.

[29] Patterson, The New American Commentary, Volume 39: Revelation, 346.

[30] Ibid.

[31] LaHaye, Revelation Unveiled, 300.

[32] Wiersbe, Expository Outlines of the New Testament, 475.

[33] LaHaye, Revelation Unveiled, 102-103.

[34] MacArthur, The MacArthur New Testament Commentary, 941.

[35] McGee, Revelation: Chapters 1-5, 125.

[36] LaHaye, Revelation Unveiled, 100.

[37] Wiersbe, Expository Outlines of the New Testament, 505.

[38] LaHaye, Revelation Unveiled, 302.

[39] Wiersbe, Expository Outlines of the New Testament, 506.

[40] MacArthur, The MacArthur New Testament Commentary, 941.

[41] LaHaye, Revelation Unveiled, 305.

[42] MacArthur, The MacArthur New Testament Commentary, 942.

[43] Patterson, The New American Commentary, 347.

[44] Patterson, The New American Commentary, 347.

[45] Wuest, Bypaths in the Greek New Testament (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eardmans Publishing Company, 1968P), 69.

[46] Ibid., 70.

[47] Ibid.

[48] Ibid.

[49] Patterson, The New American Commentary, Volume 39: Revelation, 347.

[50] Ibid.

[51] Patterson, The New American Commentary, Volume 39: Revelation, 348.

[52] Matthew Henry, Matthew Henry’s Commentary, Volume 6: Acts to Revelation (Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 2009), 948.

[53] Patterson, The New American Commentary, Volume 39: Revelation, 348.

[54] John F. Walvoord, Every Prophecy of the Bible (Colorado Springs: David C. Cook, 1999), 620.

[55] Hughes and Laney, New Bible Companion, 863

[56] Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum, “The Campaign of Armageddon and the Second Coming of Jesus the Messiah,” CTJ 5:14 (March 2001), 23.

[57] John MacArthur, “Visions of the Glorious Christ,” MJS 10:1 (Spring 99), 38.

[58] MacArthur, The MacArthur New Testament Commentary, 942.

[59] Walvoord, Every Prophecy of the Bible, 620.

[60] Tremper Longman III and David E. Garland, eds., The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Luke-Acts (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2007), 779.

[61] LaHaye, Revelation Unveiled, 307.

[62] Patterson, The New American Commentary, Volume 39: Revelation, 349.

[63] MacArthur, The MacArthur New Testament Commentary, 943.

[64] MacArthur, “Visions of the Glorious Christ,” 39.

[65] William Barclay, The Revelation of John, Volume 2 (Chapter 6 to 22) (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1960), 235.

[66] Adam Clarke, The Adam Clarke Commentary, http://studylight.org/com/acc/view.cgi?book=re&chapter=019 (accessed October 16, 2012).

[67] Barclay, The Revelation of John, Volume 2 (Chapter 6 to 22), 235.

[68] Ibid.

[69] Palmer, The Communicator’s Commentary, Volume 12: 1, 2, 3, John & Revelation, 97.

[70] Palmer, The Communicator’s Commentary, Volume 12: 1, 2, John & Revelation, 97.

[71] Herbert Lockyer, Sr., gen ed., Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1986), 914.